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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 24; doi:10.3390/md14010024

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

1
Biocenter, Gyeonggi Institute of Science and Technology Promotion (GSTEP), Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16229, Korea
2
Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI), Gijang-gun, Busan 46083, Korea
3
College of Herbal Bio-Industry, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 42158, Korea
4
Department of Biology, Immunology Research Lab, BK21-plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Roussis
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
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Abstract

The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass spectrometry; marine microbes; Pseudoalteromonas; secondary metabolite; quinolone alkaloid mass spectrometry; marine microbes; Pseudoalteromonas; secondary metabolite; quinolone alkaloid
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Kim, W.J.; Kim, Y.O.; Kim, J.H.; Nam, B.-H.; Kim, D.-G.; An, C.M.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, P.S.; Lee, H.M.; Oh, J.-S.; Lee, J.S. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 24.

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