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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 13; doi:10.3390/md14010013

Inhibition of Ultraviolet B-Induced Expression of the Proinflammatory Cytokines TNF-α and VEGF in the Cornea by Fucoxanthin Treatment in a Rat Model

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan
2
Internal Medicine, Taipei Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, New Taipei 24213, Taiwan
3
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11049, Taiwan
4
Department of Optometry, Mackay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing, and Management, New Taipei 11260, Taiwan
5
School of Optometry, College of Medical Sciences and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
6
Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei 25245, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B Jacobson
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
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Abstract

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is the most common cause of radiation damage to the eyeball and is a risk factor for human corneal damage. We determined the protective effect of fucoxanthin, which is a carotenoid found in common edible seaweed, on ocular tissues against oxidative UVB-induced corneal injury. The experimental rats were intravenously injected with fucoxanthin at doses of 0.5, 5 mg/kg body weight/day or with a vehicle before UVB irradiation. Lissamine green for corneal surface staining showed that UVB irradiation caused serious damage on the corneal surface, including severe epithelial exfoliation and deteriorated epithelial smoothness. Histopathological lesion examination revealed that levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), significantly increased. However, pretreatment with fucoxanthin inhibited UVB radiation-induced corneal disorders including evident preservation of corneal surface smoothness, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression, and decrease of infiltrated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from UVB-induced damage. Moreover, significant preservation of the epithelial integrity and inhibition of stromal swelling were also observed after UVB irradiation in fucoxanthin-treated groups. Pretreatment with fucoxanthin may protect against UVB radiation-induced corneal disorders by inhibiting expression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, and VEGF and by blocking polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. View Full-Text
Keywords: fucoxanthin; ultraviolet B; proinflammatory cytokine fucoxanthin; ultraviolet B; proinflammatory cytokine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S.-J.; Lee, C.-J.; Lin, T.-B.; Liu, H.-J.; Huang, S.-Y.; Chen, J.-Z.; Tseng, K.-W. Inhibition of Ultraviolet B-Induced Expression of the Proinflammatory Cytokines TNF-α and VEGF in the Cornea by Fucoxanthin Treatment in a Rat Model. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 13.

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