Next Article in Journal
Potential Bioactive Compounds from Seaweed for Diabetes Management
Next Article in Special Issue
Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry
Previous Article in Journal
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5425-5446; doi:10.3390/md13085425

Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

1
University of Paris-Est, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort Laboratory for Food Safety, Department of Chemical Contaminants in Food, Pesticides and Marine Biotoxins Unit, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France
2
Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche sur mer, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche CNRS UMR 7093, 181 Chemin du Lazaret 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lucio G. Costa
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [699 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg−1and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ostreopsis; palytoxins-group toxins; Mediterranean sea; marine organisms; haemolytic test; LC-MS/MS Ostreopsis; palytoxins-group toxins; Mediterranean sea; marine organisms; haemolytic test; LC-MS/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Biré, R.; Trotereau, S.; Lemée, R.; Oregioni, D.; Delpont, C.; Krys, S.; Guérin, T. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5425-5446.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top