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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4539-4555; doi:10.3390/md13074539

Structural Investigation of the Oligosaccharide Portion Isolated from the Lipooligosaccharide of the Permafrost Psychrophile Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, Napoli 80126, Italy
2
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, Napoli 80131, Italy
3
Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz-Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Parkallee 10, BorstelD-23845, Germany
4
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, Napoli 80126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Trincone
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [955 KB, uploaded 22 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Psychrophilic microorganisms have successfully colonized all permanently cold environments from the deep sea to mountain and polar regions. The ability of an organism to survive and grow in cryoenviroments depends on a number of adaptive strategies aimed at maintaining vital cellular functions at subzero temperatures, which include the structural modifications of the membrane. To understand the role of the membrane in the adaptation, it is necessary to characterize the cell-wall components, such as the lipopolysaccharides, that represent the major constituent of the outer membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) isolated from the cold-adapted Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4. The strain, isolated from a 20,000-to-30,000-year-old continuously frozen permafrost in Siberia, was cultivated at 4 °C. The LOS was isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical methods. In particular, it was degraded either by mild acid hydrolysis or by hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and by ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharide was characterized by the substitution of the heptose residue, usually linked to Kdo in the inner core, with a glucose, and for the unusual presence of N-acetylmuramic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4; glycoconjugates; lipopolysaccharide; N-acetylmuramic acid; structural determination; NMR spectroscopy Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4; glycoconjugates; lipopolysaccharide; N-acetylmuramic acid; structural determination; NMR spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Casillo, A.; Parrilli, E.; Filomena, S.; Lindner, B.; Lanzetta, R.; Parrilli, M.; Tutino, M.L.; Corsaro, M.M. Structural Investigation of the Oligosaccharide Portion Isolated from the Lipooligosaccharide of the Permafrost Psychrophile Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4539-4555.

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