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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1185-1201; doi:10.3390/md13031185

Biotransfer of β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in a Eutrophicated Freshwater Lake

1
Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10654 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Regito AB, 28022 Vittsjö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Georg Pohnert
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
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Abstract

β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, plays a significant role as an environmental risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMAA producers occur globally, colonizing almost all habitats and represent species from distinct phytoplanktonic groups, i.e., cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates. Bioaccumulation of BMAA in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms has also been registered around the globe. In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems. Here we find the presence of BMAA in water samples from Lake Finjasjön and identify its bioaccumulation patterns in both plankti-benthivorous and piscivorous fish, according to fish species, total weight, gender, and season of collection. For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach. We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lake Finjasjön; β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; bioaccumulation; phytoplankton; fish Lake Finjasjön; β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; bioaccumulation; phytoplankton; fish
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lage, S.; Annadotter, H.; Rasmussen, U.; Rydberg, S. Biotransfer of β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in a Eutrophicated Freshwater Lake. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1185-1201.

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