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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1133-1174; doi:10.3390/md13031133

Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications

1
Laboratory of Enzyme Engineering and Microbiology, University of Sfax, National School of Engineering, PO Box 1173-3038, Sfax, Tunisia
2
Biomaterials Applications, 6 rue Lesdiguières, Grenoble 38000, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Harding and Hitoshi Sashiwa
Received: 26 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
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Abstract

This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin; chitosan; chemical and enzymatic deproteinization; demineralization; characterization; deacetylation; biological activities; biomedical applications chitin; chitosan; chemical and enzymatic deproteinization; demineralization; characterization; deacetylation; biological activities; biomedical applications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Younes, I.; Rinaudo, M. Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1133-1174.

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