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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6064-6081; doi:10.3390/md13106064

Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Nf-Κb P65 and Wnt/Β-Catenin in Vitro

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China
2
The First Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
3
The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor that can cause systemic invasion; however, the exact etiology and molecular mechanism are unknown. Astaxanthin (ASX), a powerful antioxidant, has efficient anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other activities, and has great research prospects in cancer therapy. We selected the human hepatoma cell lines, LM3 and SMMC-7721, to study the anti-tumor effect and related mechanisms of ASX. The cell lines were treated with different concentrations of ASX, and its solvent DMSO as a control, for different time periods and the results were determined using CCK8, qRT-PCR, WB, apoptotic staining, and flow cytometry. ASX induced significant apoptosis of HCC cells, and its effect may have been caused by NF-κB p65 and Wnt/β-catenin down-regulation via negative activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK. Antitumor research on ASX has provided us with a potential therapy for patients with hepatomas. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; astaxanthin; apoptosis hepatocellular carcinoma; astaxanthin; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Dai, W.; Xia, Y.; Chen, K.; Li, S.; Liu, T.; Zhang, R.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Q.; Abudumijiti, H.; Chen, R.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, F.; Lu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Guo, C. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Nf-Κb P65 and Wnt/Β-Catenin in Vitro. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6064-6081.

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