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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 48-64; doi:10.3390/md13010048

Intestinal Absorption of Fucoidan Extracted from the Brown Seaweed, Cladosiphon okamuranus

1
Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8514, Japan
2
South Product, Co., Ltd., Uruma, Okinawa 904-1103, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 25 December 2014
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.0 mg/mL. It reached a maximum after 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In another experiment, rats were fed standard chow containing 2% fucoidan for one or two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that fucoidan accumulated in jejunal epithelial cells, mononuclear cells in the jejunal lamina propria and sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Since we previously speculated that nitrosamine may enhance the intestinal absorption of fucoidan, its absorption was estimated in rats administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) in their drinking water. Rats were fed 0.2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 0.2% fucoidan rats), 2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 2% fucoidan rats) and standard chow for eight weeks. The uptake of fucoidan through the intestinal tract seemed to be low, but was measurable by our ELISA method. Fucoidan-positive cells were abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. Most fucoidan-positive cells also stained positive for ED1, suggesting that fucoidan was incorporated into intestinal macrophages. The uptake of fucoidan by Kupffer cells was observed in the livers of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. In conclusion, the absorption of fucoidan through the small intestine was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: fucoidan; intestinal absorption; macrophage; Kupffer cells; Caco-2 cells fucoidan; intestinal absorption; macrophage; Kupffer cells; Caco-2 cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nagamine, T.; Nakazato, K.; Tomioka, S.; Iha, M.; Nakajima, K. Intestinal Absorption of Fucoidan Extracted from the Brown Seaweed, Cladosiphon okamuranus. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 48-64.

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