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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(8), 4474-4494; doi:10.3390/md12084474

Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

1
CCMAR—Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal
2
School of Health, University of Algarve, Av. Dr. Adelino da Palma Carlos, Faro 8000-510, Portugal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Endocrine Disruption)
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Abstract

Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds; endocrine disruption; estrogen receptor; fish; mineralized tissues endocrine disrupting compounds; endocrine disruption; estrogen receptor; fish; mineralized tissues
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinto, P.I.S.; Estêvão, M.D.; Power, D.M. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4474-4494.

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