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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(8), 4439-4473; doi:10.3390/md12084439
Article

Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

1,2,3,4,* , 1,2,3
, 5
 and 1,2,3,*
Received: 5 June 2014; in revised form: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 8 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Abstract: Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications.
Keywords: sea cucumber viscera; saponins; bioactive compounds; MALDI; ESI; mass spectrometry; HPCPC; triterpene glycosides; structure elucidation; marine invertebrate; Echinodermata; holothurian sea cucumber viscera; saponins; bioactive compounds; MALDI; ESI; mass spectrometry; HPCPC; triterpene glycosides; structure elucidation; marine invertebrate; Echinodermata; holothurian
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahrami, Y.; Zhang, W.; Chataway, T.; Franco, C. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4439-4473.

AMA Style

Bahrami Y, Zhang W, Chataway T, Franco C. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(8):4439-4473.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris. 2014. "Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 8: 4439-4473.


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