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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2422-2445; doi:10.3390/md12052422

In Vitro Assessment of Marine Bacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics

1
Eco-Innovation Research Centre, Department of Chemical and Life Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland
2
Veterinary Public Health Regulatory Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Backweston Complex, Celbridge, Co. Kildare, Ireland
3
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland
4
Pig Development Department, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
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Abstract

Six antimicrobial-producing seaweed-derived Bacillus strains were evaluated in vitro as animal probiotics, in comparison to two Bacillus from an EU-authorized animal probiotic product. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated on solid media against porcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates were most active against the latter, had better activity than the commercial probiotics and Bacillus pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli counts in broth. All of the marine Bacillus tolerated physiological concentrations of bile, with some as tolerant as one of the probiotics. Spore counts for all isolates remained almost constant during incubation in simulated gastric and ileum juices. All of the marine Bacillus grew anaerobically and the spores of all except one isolate germinated under anaerobic conditions. All were sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and none harbored Bacillus enterotoxin genes but all, except B. pumilus WIT 588, showed some degree of β-hemolysis. However, trypan blue dye exclusion and xCELLigence assays demonstrated a lack of toxicity in comparison to two pathogens; in fact, the commercial probiotics appeared more cytotoxic than the majority of the marine Bacillus. Overall, some of the marine-derived Bacillus, in particular B. pumilus WIT 588, demonstrate potential for use as livestock probiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: spores; antimicrobial; E. coli; xCELLigence; pigs spores; antimicrobial; E. coli; xCELLigence; pigs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prieto, M.L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Tan, S.P.; McLoughlin, P.; Hughes, H.; Gutierrez, M.; Lane, J.A.; Hickey, R.M.; Lawlor, P.G.; Gardiner, G.E. In Vitro Assessment of Marine Bacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2422-2445.

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