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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2408-2421; doi:10.3390/md12052408

Pathophysiological Effects of Synthetic Derivatives of Polymeric Alkylpyridinium Salts from the Marine Sponge, Reniera sarai

1
Institute for Hygiene and Pathology of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Cesta v Mestni log 47, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
2
Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Abstract

Polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) are among the most studied natural bioactive compounds extracted from the marine sponge, Reniera sarai. They exhibit a wide range of biological activities, and the most prominent among them are the anti-acetylcholinesterase and membrane-damaging activity. Due to their membrane activity, sAPS can induce the lysis of various cells and cell lines and inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Because of their bioactivity, poly-APS are possible candidates for use in the fields of medicine, pharmacy and industry. Due to the small amounts of naturally occurring poly-APS, methods for the synthesis of analogues have been developed. They differ in chemical properties, such as the degree of polymerization, the length of the alkyl chains (from three to 12 carbon atoms) and in the counter ions present in their structures. Such structurally defined analogues with different chemical properties and degrees of polymerization possess different levels of biological activity. We review the current knowledge of the biological activity and toxicity of synthetic poly-APS analogues, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of their physiological and pharmacological effects and, in particular, the mechanisms of toxicity of two analogues, APS12-2 and APS3, in vivo and in vitro.
Keywords: alkylpyridinium compounds; APS12-2; APS3; cardiotoxicity; hemolysis; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; neuromuscular junction; mouse; rat; synthesis alkylpyridinium compounds; APS12-2; APS3; cardiotoxicity; hemolysis; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; neuromuscular junction; mouse; rat; synthesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grandič, M.; Frangež, R. Pathophysiological Effects of Synthetic Derivatives of Polymeric Alkylpyridinium Salts from the Marine Sponge, Reniera sarai. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2408-2421.

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