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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 2066-2078; doi:10.3390/md12042066
Article

Phallusiasterols A and B: Two New Sulfated Sterols from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata and Their Effects as Modulators of the PXR Receptor

1
, 1
, 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
 and 1,*
1 The NeaNat Group, Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, Napoli 80131, Italy 2 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Perugia, Via Gerardo Dottori 1, S. Andrea delle Fratte, Perugia 06132, Italy 3 Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, Napoli 80131, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Abstract

Purification of the apolar extracts of the marine ascidian Phallusia fumigata, afforded two new sulfated sterols, phallusiasterols A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new compounds have been elucidated using mass spectrometry and NMR experiments. The effects of phallusiasterols A and B as modulators of pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) have been investigated. These studies revealed that phallusiasterol A induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target genes CYP3A4 and MDR1 in the same cell line. Molecular docking calculations suggested the theoretical binding mode of phallusiasterol A with hPXR and revealed that phallusiasterol A fitted well in the LBD of PXR.
Keywords: sterols; ascidians; tunicates; Phallusia fumigata; NMR; PXR receptor sterols; ascidians; tunicates; Phallusia fumigata; NMR; PXR receptor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Imperatore, C.; D'Aniello, F.; Aiello, A.; Fiorucci, S.; D'Amore, C.; Sepe, V.; Menna, M. Phallusiasterols A and B: Two New Sulfated Sterols from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata and Their Effects as Modulators of the PXR Receptor. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2066-2078.

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