Next Article in Journal
Trabectedin and Plitidepsin: Drugs from the Sea that Strike the Tumor Microenvironment
Next Article in Special Issue
Bioactive Cembranoids, Sarcocrassocolides P–R, from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule
Previous Article in Journal
Polyunsaturated Aldehydes from Large Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean Surface (42°N to 33°S)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Six New Tetraprenylated Alkaloids from the South China Sea Gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 700-718;

Spongionella Secondary Metabolites Protect Mitochondrial Function in Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27003, Spain
Marine Biodiscovery Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE, UK
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 32514, Egypt
Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Ashgrove Road West, Aberdeen, Scotland AB25 2ZD, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1323 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


The marine habitat provides a large number of structurally-diverse bioactive compounds for drug development. Marine sponges have been studied over many years and are found to be a rich source of these bioactive chemicals. This study is focused on the evaluation of the activity of six diterpene derivatives isolated from Spongionella sp. on mitochondrial function using an oxidative in vitro stress model. The test compounds include the Gracilins (A, H, K, J and L) and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1. Compounds were co-incubated with hydrogen peroxide for 12 hours to determine their protective capacities and their effect on markers of apoptosis and Nrf2/ARE pathways was evaluated. Results conclude that Gracilins preserve neurons against oxidative damage, and that in particular, tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 shows a complete neuroprotective activity. Oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and consequently to neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, Friedreich ataxia or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This neuroprotection against oxidation conditions suggest that these metabolites could be interesting lead candidates in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: diterpenes; Porifera; mitochondrial function; oxidative stress; neurodegenerative disorders diterpenes; Porifera; mitochondrial function; oxidative stress; neurodegenerative disorders

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Leirós, M.; Sánchez, J.A.; Alonso, E.; Rateb, M.E.; Houssen, W.E.; Ebel, R.; Jaspars, M.; Alfonso, A.; Botana, L.M. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites Protect Mitochondrial Function in Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 700-718.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top