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The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2013; in revised form: 22 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Abstract: Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3β that resulted in the decrease of β-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of β-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Keywords: fucoidan; PC-3 cells; apoptosis; Wnt/β-catenin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Boo, H.-J.; Hong, J.-Y.; Kim, S.-C.; Kang, J.-I.; Kim, M.-K.; Kim, E.-J.; Hyun, J.-W.; Koh, Y.-S.; Yoo, E.-S.; Kwon, J.-M.; Kang, H.-K. The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2982-2999.
Boo H-J, Hong J-Y, Kim S-C, Kang J-I, Kim M-K, Kim E-J, Hyun J-W, Koh Y-S, Yoo E-S, Kwon J-M, Kang H-K. The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(8):2982-2999.
Boo, Hye-Jin; Hong, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kwon, Jung-Mi; Kang, Hee-Kyoung. 2013. "The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 8: 2982-2999.