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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 2982-2999; doi:10.3390/md11082982
Article

The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

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1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea 2 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea 3 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea 4 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 690-756, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 22 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
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Abstract

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3β that resulted in the decrease of β-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of β-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Keywords: fucoidan; PC-3 cells; apoptosis; Wnt/β-catenin fucoidan; PC-3 cells; apoptosis; Wnt/β-catenin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Boo, H.-J.; Hong, J.-Y.; Kim, S.-C.; Kang, J.-I.; Kim, M.-K.; Kim, E.-J.; Hyun, J.-W.; Koh, Y.-S.; Yoo, E.-S.; Kwon, J.-M.; Kang, H.-K. The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2982-2999.

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