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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(4), 1071-1086; doi:10.3390/md11041071
Article

Sponge-Derived Kocuria and Micrococcus spp. as Sources of the New Thiazolyl Peptide Antibiotic Kocurin

1
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 2,†
, 2
, 1
, 1
 and 1,*
1 Fundación MEDINA, Centro de Excelencia en Investigación de Medicamentos Innovadores en Andalucía. Avda. del Conocimiento 3, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, E-18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain 2 Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 701 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA Current Address: Algenol Biofuels, 16121 Lee Road, Suite 110, Fort Myers, FL 33912, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antibiotics)
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Abstract

Forty four marine actinomycetes of the family Microccocaceae isolated from sponges collected primarily in Florida Keys (USA) were selected from our strain collection to be studied as new sources for the production of bioactive natural products. A 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains are members of the genera Kocuria and Micrococcus. To assess their biosynthetic potential, the strains were PCR screened for the presence of secondary metabolite genes encoding nonribosomal synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS). A small extract collection of 528 crude extracts generated from nutritional microfermentation arrays was tested for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites against clinically relevant strains (Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans). Three independent isolates were shown to produce a new anti-MRSA bioactive compound that was identified as kocurin, a new member of the thiazolyl peptide family of antibiotics emphasizing the role of this family as a prolific resource for novel drugs.
Keywords: marine actinomycete; sponge; Kocuria; Microccocus; antibiotic; MRSA; thiazolyl peptide; NRPS; PKS marine actinomycete; sponge; Kocuria; Microccocus; antibiotic; MRSA; thiazolyl peptide; NRPS; PKS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palomo, S.; González, I.; de la Cruz, M.; Martín, J.; Tormo, J.R.; Anderson, M.; Hill, R.T.; Vicente, F.; Reyes, F.; Genilloud, O. Sponge-Derived Kocuria and Micrococcus spp. as Sources of the New Thiazolyl Peptide Antibiotic Kocurin. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1071-1086.

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