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Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species
Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Natural Products Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Princess Al-Jawhara Center of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: In continuation of our search for drug leads from Red Sea sponges we have investigated the ethyl acetate fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Hyrtios species. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active fraction resulted into the identification of three new alkaloids, hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3). Hyrtioerectines D–F belong to the rare marine alkaloids in which the indole and β-carboline fragments of the molecule are linked through C-3/C-3 of both moieties. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and high-resolution mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and the free radical scavenging activity of the compounds using DPPH reagent were evaluated. In addition, the growth inhibitory activity of the compounds against three cancer cell lines was also evaluated. Hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3) displayed variable antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibition activities. Generally, compounds 1 and 3 were more active than compound 2.
Keywords: Red Sea sponge; Hyrtios species; alkaloids; antimicrobial activity; free radical scavenging activity; cancer growth inhibition activity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Youssef, D.T.A.; Shaala, L.A.; Asfour, H.Z. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1061-1070.
Youssef DTA, Shaala LA, Asfour HZ. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(4):1061-1070.
Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Asfour, Hani Z. 2013. "Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 4: 1061-1070.