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Glycosylation of Conotoxins
NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Atheris Laboratories, Case postale 314, CH-1233 Bernex-Geneva, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2012; in revised form: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Abstract: Conotoxins are small peptides present in the venom of cone snails. The snail uses this venom to paralyze and capture prey. The constituent conopeptides display a high level of chemical diversity and are of particular interest for scientists as tools employed in neurological studies and for drug development, because they target with exquisite specificity membrane receptors, transporters, and various ion channels in the nervous system. However, these peptides are known to contain a high frequency and variability of post-translational modifications—including sometimes O-glycosylation—which are of importance for biological activity. The potential application of specific conotoxins as neuropharmalogical agents and chemical probes requires a full characterization of the relevant peptides, including the structure of the carbohydrate part. In this review, the currently existing knowledge of O-glycosylation of conotoxins is described.
Keywords: cone snails; glycopeptide; glycosylation; l-galactose; neuropeptide; O-glycan; post-translational modification; venom
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MDPI and ACS Style
Gerwig, G.J.; Hocking, H.G.; Stöcklin, R.; Kamerling, J.P.; Boelens, R. Glycosylation of Conotoxins. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 623-642.
Gerwig GJ, Hocking HG, Stöcklin R, Kamerling JP, Boelens R. Glycosylation of Conotoxins. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(3):623-642.
Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Hocking, Henry G.; Stöcklin, Reto; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Boelens, Rolf. 2013. "Glycosylation of Conotoxins." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 3: 623-642.