Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 2,5-bis(3′-Indolyl)pyrroles, Analogues of the Marine Alkaloid Nortopsentin
Next Article in Special Issue
Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay—Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Previous Article in Journal
Thalassospiramide G, a New γ-Amino-Acid-Bearing Peptide from the Marine Bacterium Thalassospira sp.
Previous Article in Special Issue
Glycobiology of Reproductive Processes in Marine Animals: The State of the Art
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 623-642; doi:10.3390/md11030623

Glycosylation of Conotoxins

1 NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands 2 Atheris Laboratories, Case postale 314, CH-1233 Bernex-Geneva, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1028 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures


Conotoxins are small peptides present in the venom of cone snails. The snail uses this venom to paralyze and capture prey. The constituent conopeptides display a high level of chemical diversity and are of particular interest for scientists as tools employed in neurological studies and for drug development, because they target with exquisite specificity membrane receptors, transporters, and various ion channels in the nervous system. However, these peptides are known to contain a high frequency and variability of post-translational modifications—including sometimes O-glycosylation—which are of importance for biological activity. The potential application of specific conotoxins as neuropharmalogical agents and chemical probes requires a full characterization of the relevant peptides, including the structure of the carbohydrate part. In this review, the currently existing knowledge of O-glycosylation of conotoxins is described.
Keywords: cone snails; glycopeptide; glycosylation; l-galactose; neuropeptide; O-glycan; post-translational modification; venom cone snails; glycopeptide; glycosylation; l-galactose; neuropeptide; O-glycan; post-translational modification; venom
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Gerwig, G.J.; Hocking, H.G.; Stöcklin, R.; Kamerling, J.P.; Boelens, R. Glycosylation of Conotoxins. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 623-642.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert