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Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers
State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
Abstract: In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.
Keywords: sea cucumber; polysaccharide; fucosylated chondroitin sulfate; sulfated fucan; glucan; anticoagulant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Luo, L.; Wu, M.; Xu, L.; Lian, W.; Xiang, J.; Lu, F.; Gao, N.; Xiao, C.; Wang, S.; Zhao, J. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 399-417.
Luo L, Wu M, Xu L, Lian W, Xiang J, Lu F, Gao N, Xiao C, Wang S, Zhao J. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(2):399-417.
Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua. 2013. "Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 2: 399-417.