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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4724-4740; doi:10.3390/md11124724
Article

Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents

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Received: 3 September 2013; in revised form: 6 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
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Abstract: Severe toxicity was detected in mussels from Bizerte Lagoon (Northern Tunisia) using routine mouse bioassays for detecting diarrheic and paralytic toxins not associated to classical phytoplankton blooming. The atypical toxicity was characterized by rapid mouse death. The aim of the present work was to understand the basis of such toxicity. Bioassay-guided chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry were used to detect and characterize the fraction responsible for mussels’ toxicity. Only a C17-sphinganine analog mycotoxin (C17-SAMT), with a molecular mass of 287.289 Da, was found in contaminated shellfish. The doses of C17-SAMT that were lethal to 50% of mice were 750 and 150 μg/kg following intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, respectively, and 900 μg/kg following oral administration. The macroscopic general aspect of cultures and the morphological characteristics of the strains isolated from mussels revealed that the toxicity episodes were associated to the presence of marine microfungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma sp.) in contaminated samples. The major in vivo effect of C17-SAMT on the mouse neuromuscular system was a dose- and time-dependent decrease of compound muscle action potential amplitude and an increased excitability threshold. In vitro, C17-SAMT caused a dose- and time-dependent block of directly- and indirectly-elicited isometric contraction of isolated mouse hemidiaphragms.
Keywords: mycotoxin; toxic Tunisian mussels; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; mouse bioassay; neuromuscular system mycotoxin; toxic Tunisian mussels; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; mouse bioassay; neuromuscular system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marrouchi, R.; Benoit, E.; Le Caer, J.-P.; Belayouni, N.; Belghith, H.; Molgó, J.; Kharrat, R. Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4724-4740.

AMA Style

Marrouchi R, Benoit E, Le Caer J-P, Belayouni N, Belghith H, Molgó J, Kharrat R. Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(12):4724-4740.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marrouchi, Riadh; Benoit, Evelyne; Le Caer, Jean-Pierre; Belayouni, Nawel; Belghith, Hafedh; Molgó, Jordi; Kharrat, Riadh. 2013. "Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 12: 4724-4740.


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