Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents
Previous Article in Journal
Pathways of Lipid Metabolism in Marine Algae, Co-Expression Network, Bottlenecks and Candidate Genes for Enhanced Production of EPA and DHA in Species of Chromista
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4698-4723; doi:10.3390/md11124698
Review

Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

,
,
 and *
Cooperative Innovation Center of Engineering and New Products for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 10 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [959 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management.
Keywords: VGSCs; shellfish toxins; structure; bioactivity; pharmaceutical potential VGSCs; shellfish toxins; structure; bioactivity; pharmaceutical potential
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Xu, X.; Li, T.; Liu, Z. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4698-4723.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert