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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4698-4723; doi:10.3390/md11124698
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Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

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Received: 12 September 2013; in revised form: 10 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
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Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management.
Keywords: VGSCs; shellfish toxins; structure; bioactivity; pharmaceutical potential VGSCs; shellfish toxins; structure; bioactivity; pharmaceutical potential
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Xu, X.; Li, T.; Liu, Z. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4698-4723.

AMA Style

Zhang F, Xu X, Li T, Liu Z. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(12):4698-4723.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua. 2013. "Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 12: 4698-4723.


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