Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
Cooperative Innovation Center of Engineering and New Products for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2013; in revised form: 10 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management.
Keywords: VGSCs; shellfish toxins; structure; bioactivity; pharmaceutical potential
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, F.; Xu, X.; Li, T.; Liu, Z. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4698-4723.
Zhang F, Xu X, Li T, Liu Z. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(12):4698-4723.
Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua. 2013. "Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 12: 4698-4723.