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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4176-4192; doi:10.3390/md11114176
Article

Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae)

1,†
, 2,†
, 1,2
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 3
, 4
, 4
, 1
, 1
 and 1,2,*
1 Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil 2 Laboratory of Applied Virology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil 3 Laboratory of Porifera, National Museum, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20940-040, RJ, Brazil 4 UMYMFOR—Department of Organic Chemistry, FCEN—University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EGA, Argentina These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
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Abstract

The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2.
Keywords: antiviral activity; HSV-1; marine sponge; Petromica citrina; sulfate sterols antiviral activity; HSV-1; marine sponge; Petromica citrina; sulfate sterols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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da Rosa Guimarães, T.; Quiroz, C.G.; Rigotto, C.; de Oliveira, S.Q.; de Almeida, M.T.R.; Bianco, É.M.; Moritz, M.I.G.; Carraro, J.L.; Palermo, J.A.; Cabrera, G.; Schenkel, E.P.; Reginatto, F.H.; Simões, C.M.O. Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae). Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4176-4192.

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