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Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs
Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
Koyo Chemical Co. Ltd., 3-11-15 Iidabashi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102-0072, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2012; in revised form: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Abstract: D-Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN∙HCl) is an endogenous amino monosaccharide synthesized from glucose that is useful in the treatment of joint diseases in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism in dogs after oral administration of GlcN∙HCl. Accelerated fumarate respiration and elevated plasma levels of lactic acid and alanine were observed after administration. These results suggest that oral administration of GlcN∙HCl induces anaerobic respiration and starvation in cells, and we hypothesize that these conditions promote cartilage regeneration. Further studies are required to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β).
Keywords: amino acid; dog; glucosamine hydrochloride; metabolomic analyses
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MDPI and ACS Style
Osaki, T.; Azuma, K.; Kurozumi, S.; Takamori, Y.; Tsuka, T.; Imagawa, T.; Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S. Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1873-1882.
Osaki T, Azuma K, Kurozumi S, Takamori Y, Tsuka T, Imagawa T, Okamoto Y, Minami S. Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(8):1873-1882.
Osaki, Tomohiro; Azuma, Kazuo; Kurozumi, Seiji; Takamori, Yoshimori; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo. 2012. "Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 8: 1873-1882.