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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(7), 1582-1604; doi:10.3390/md10071582
Review

Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat

1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 31 May 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Anemone Toxins)
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Abstract: In the natural world, there are many creatures with venoms that have interesting and varied activities. Although the sea anemone, a member of the phylum Coelenterata, has venom that it uses to capture and immobilise small fishes and shrimp and for protection from predators, most sea anemones are harmless to man. However, a few species are highly toxic; some have venoms containing neurotoxins, recently suggested as potential immune-modulators for therapeutic application in immune diseases. Phyllodiscus semoni is a highly toxic sea anemone; the venom has multiple effects, including lethality, hemolysis and renal injuries. We previously reported that venom extracted from Phyllodiscus semoni induced acute glomerular endothelial injuries in rats resembling hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), accompanied with complement dysregulation in glomeruli and suggested that the model might be useful for analyses of pathology and development of therapeutic approaches in HUS. In this mini-review, we describe in detail the venom-induced acute renal injuries in rat and summarize how the venom of Phyllodiscus semoni could have potential as a tool for analyses of complement activation and therapeutic interventions in HUS.
Keywords: sea anemone; hemolytic uremic syndrome; complement; complement regulators; marine envenomation; renal failure sea anemone; hemolytic uremic syndrome; complement; complement regulators; marine envenomation; renal failure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mizuno, M.; Ito, Y.; Morgan, B.P. Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1582-1604.

AMA Style

Mizuno M, Ito Y, Morgan BP. Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(7):1582-1604.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mizuno, Masashi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Morgan, B. Paul. 2012. "Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 7: 1582-1604.



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