Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1391-1399; doi:10.3390/md10061391
Article

Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite

1 Research Institute for Production Development, 15 Shimogamo-morimoto-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0805, Japan 2 Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Clinical R&D, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan 3 Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2012; in revised form: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract: Astaxanthin captured peroxynitrite to form nitroastaxanthins. 15-Nitroastaxanthin was a major reaction product of astaxanthin with peroxynitrite. Here, the anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of 15-nitroastaxanthin were investigated. In addition to astaxanthin, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed excellent singlet oxygen quenching activity. Furthermore, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed inhibitory effects of in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation and two-stage carcinogensis on mouse skin papillomas. These activities were slightly higher than those of astaxanthin. Similar results were obtained for the 15-nitrolutein, a major reaction product of lutein with peroxynitrite.
Keywords: carotenoid; 15-nitroastaxanthin; 15-nitrolutein; anti-carcinogensis activity; anti-oxidative activity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maoka, T.; Tokuda, H.; Suzuki, N.; Kato, H.; Etoh, H. Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1391-1399.

AMA Style

Maoka T, Tokuda H, Suzuki N, Kato H, Etoh H. Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(6):1391-1399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maoka, Takashi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kato, Hideaki; Etoh, Hideo. 2012. "Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 6: 1391-1399.

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