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Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1391-1399; doi:10.3390/md10061391
Article

Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite

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Received: 29 March 2012; in revised form: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract: Astaxanthin captured peroxynitrite to form nitroastaxanthins. 15-Nitroastaxanthin was a major reaction product of astaxanthin with peroxynitrite. Here, the anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of 15-nitroastaxanthin were investigated. In addition to astaxanthin, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed excellent singlet oxygen quenching activity. Furthermore, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed inhibitory effects of in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation and two-stage carcinogensis on mouse skin papillomas. These activities were slightly higher than those of astaxanthin. Similar results were obtained for the 15-nitrolutein, a major reaction product of lutein with peroxynitrite.
Keywords: carotenoid; 15-nitroastaxanthin; 15-nitrolutein; anti-carcinogensis activity; anti-oxidative activity carotenoid; 15-nitroastaxanthin; 15-nitrolutein; anti-carcinogensis activity; anti-oxidative activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maoka, T.; Tokuda, H.; Suzuki, N.; Kato, H.; Etoh, H. Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1391-1399.

AMA Style

Maoka T, Tokuda H, Suzuki N, Kato H, Etoh H. Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(6):1391-1399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maoka, Takashi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kato, Hideaki; Etoh, Hideo. 2012. "Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 6: 1391-1399.


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