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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2584-2595; doi:10.3390/md10112584
Article

Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

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Received: 20 August 2012; in revised form: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
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Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing that 68 out of 83 marine bacteria (affiliated with the Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) influenced expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin toxin and/or spa encoding Protein A. The isolate that upon initial screening showed the highest degree of interference (crude ethyl acetate extract) was a Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Extraction, purification and structural elucidation revealed a novel siderophore, designated nigribactin, which induces spa transcription. The effect of nigribactin on spa expression is likely to be independent from its siderophore activity, as another potent siderophore, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens.
Keywords: nigribactin; siderophore; Vibrio; Staphylococcus aureus; spa; agr nigribactin; siderophore; Vibrio; Staphylococcus aureus; spa; agr
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nielsen, A.; Mansson, M.; Wietz, M.; Varming, A.N.; Phipps, R.K.; Larsen, T.O.; Gram, L.; Ingmer, H. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2584-2595.

AMA Style

Nielsen A, Mansson M, Wietz M, Varming AN, Phipps RK, Larsen TO, Gram L, Ingmer H. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(11):2584-2595.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nielsen, Anita; Mansson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Varming, Anders N.; Phipps, Richard K.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Gram, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne. 2012. "Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 11: 2584-2595.


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