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Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(3), 590-606; doi:10.3390/ph8030590

Potential of Glutamate-Based Drug Discovery for Next Generation Antidepressants

Pharmacology I, Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 1-403 Yoshino-cho, Kita-ku, Saitama, Saitama 331-9530, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guy Griebel
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 3 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
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Abstract

Recently, ketamine has been demonstrated to exert rapid-acting antidepressant effects in patients with depression, including those with treatment-resistant depression, and this discovery has been regarded as the most significant advance in drug development for the treatment of depression in over 50 years. To overcome unwanted side effects of ketamine, numerous approaches targeting glutamatergic systems have been vigorously investigated. For example, among agents targeting the NMDA receptor, the efficacies of selective GluN2B receptor antagonists and a low-trapping antagonist, as well as glycine site modulators such as GLYX-13 and sarcosine have been demonstrated clinically. Moreover, agents acting on metabotropic glutamate receptors, such as mGlu2/3 and mGlu5 receptors, have been proposed as useful approaches to mimicking the antidepressant effects of ketamine. Neural and synaptic mechanisms mediated through the antidepressant effects of ketamine have been being delineated, most of which indicate that ketamine improves abnormalities in synaptic transmission and connectivity observed in depressive states via the AMPA receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent mechanisms. Interestingly, some of the above agents may share some neural and synaptic mechanisms with ketamine. These studies should provide important insights for the development of superior pharmacotherapies for depression with more potent and faster onsets of actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketamine; GluN2B antagonist; mGlu2/3 antagonist; mGlu5 antagonist; GLYX-13 ketamine; GluN2B antagonist; mGlu2/3 antagonist; mGlu5 antagonist; GLYX-13
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chaki, S.; Fukumoto, K. Potential of Glutamate-Based Drug Discovery for Next Generation Antidepressants. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 590-606.

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