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Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(3), 416-434; doi:10.3390/ph8030416

Toxicological Studies of 212Pb Intravenously or Intraperitoneally Injected into Mice for a Phase 1 Trial

Radioimmune & Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Areva Med LLC, 4800 Hampden Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Svend Borup Jensen
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals and Their Use in Drug Development)
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Faced with the novelty of a 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) for clinical translation, concerns were expressed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding 212Pb prematurely released from the mAb-chelate conjugate. The objective of this study was to simulate the worst case scenario of such a failure. Groups of Balb/c mice (n = 9–20) were administered 212Pb by intraperitoneal (0.0925–1.85 MBq) or intravenous (0.0925–1.11 MBq) injection and then euthanized at 7 or 90 days to assess acute or chronic effects. Weights were recorded prior to injection of the 212Pb and at the end of the observation periods. Blood samples were collected for clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. Thirty tissues were harvested and formalin fixed for histopathological examination. Treatment related effects of the 212Pb were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, kidneys and the liver. Histological alterations in these organs were considered mild to moderate, indicating low grade toxicity, and not considered severe enough to affect function. This data was presented to the FDA and determined to be acceptable. The clinical trial with 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab was approved in January 2011 and the trial opened at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) in July. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pb-212; FDA toxicity study; radioimmunotherapy; targeted alpha-radiation Pb-212; FDA toxicity study; radioimmunotherapy; targeted alpha-radiation

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milenic, D.E.; Molinolo, A.A.; Solivella, M.S.; Banaga, E.; Torgue, J.; Besnainou, S.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Baidoo, K.E. Toxicological Studies of 212Pb Intravenously or Intraperitoneally Injected into Mice for a Phase 1 Trial. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 416-434.

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