Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(1), 108-123; doi:10.3390/ph6010108
Review

Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease

Received: 5 November 2012; in revised form: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Drugs for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics.
Keywords: cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript; mitochondria; antioxidant; dopamine; oxidative stress; neuroprotection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, P.; Meshul, C.K.; Thuillier, P.; Reddy, P.H. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 108-123.

AMA Style

Mao P, Meshul CK, Thuillier P, Reddy PH. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(1):108-123.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P. H. 2013. "Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 1: 108-123.

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