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Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease
Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, and the Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
Research Services, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and Pathology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2012; in revised form: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics.
Keywords: cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript; mitochondria; antioxidant; dopamine; oxidative stress; neuroprotection
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Mao, P.; Meshul, C.K.; Thuillier, P.; Reddy, P.H. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 108-123.
Mao P, Meshul CK, Thuillier P, Reddy PH. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(1):108-123.
Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P. H. 2013. "Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 1: 108-123.