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The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver
Oncology-Molecular and Translational Endocrinology Group, Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Associate Unit of University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Biomedical Institute “Alberto Sols”-CSIC, Las Palmas de G.C. 35016, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2012; in revised form: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 19 July 2012
Abstract: GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis, protection from drug-induced toxicity and fertility. In addition, estrogens can modulate GH actions in liver by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and, peripherally, by modulating GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway. Therefore, the interactions of estrogens with GH actions in liver are biologically and clinically relevant because disruption of GH signaling may cause alterations of its endocrine, metabolic, and gender differentiated functions and it could be linked to dramatic impact in liver physiology during development as well as in adulthood. Finally, the interplay of estrogens with GH is relevant because physiological roles these hormones have in human, and the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. This review highlights the importance of these hormones in liver physiology as well as how estrogens modulate GH actions in liver which will help to improve the clinical use of these hormones.
Keywords: growth hormone; 17β-estradiol; liver; growth; metabolism; STAT5
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de Mirecki-Garrido, M.; Guerra, B.; Mateos-Díaz, C.; Jiménez-Monzón, R.; Díaz-Chico, N.; Díaz-Chico, J.C.; Fernández-Pérez, L. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 758-778.
de Mirecki-Garrido M, Guerra B, Mateos-Díaz C, Jiménez-Monzón R, Díaz-Chico N, Díaz-Chico JC, Fernández-Pérez L. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(7):758-778.
de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Mateos-Díaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Monzón, Roberto; Díaz-Chico, Nicolás; Díaz-Chico, Juan C.; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro. 2012. "The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 7: 758-778.