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Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(7), 758-778; doi:10.3390/ph5070758
Review

The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver

, , , , ,  and *
Received: 4 June 2012; in revised form: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 19 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapy)
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Abstract: GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis, protection from drug-induced toxicity and fertility. In addition, estrogens can modulate GH actions in liver by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and, peripherally, by modulating GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway. Therefore, the interactions of estrogens with GH actions in liver are biologically and clinically relevant because disruption of GH signaling may cause alterations of its endocrine, metabolic, and gender differentiated functions and it could be linked to dramatic impact in liver physiology during development as well as in adulthood. Finally, the interplay of estrogens with GH is relevant because physiological roles these hormones have in human, and the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. This review highlights the importance of these hormones in liver physiology as well as how estrogens modulate GH actions in liver which will help to improve the clinical use of these hormones.
Keywords: growth hormone; 17β-estradiol; liver; growth; metabolism; STAT5 growth hormone; 17β-estradiol; liver; growth; metabolism; STAT5
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Mirecki-Garrido, M.; Guerra, B.; Mateos-Díaz, C.; Jiménez-Monzón, R.; Díaz-Chico, N.; Díaz-Chico, J.C.; Fernández-Pérez, L. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 758-778.

AMA Style

de Mirecki-Garrido M, Guerra B, Mateos-Díaz C, Jiménez-Monzón R, Díaz-Chico N, Díaz-Chico JC, Fernández-Pérez L. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(7):758-778.

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Mateos-Díaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Monzón, Roberto; Díaz-Chico, Nicolás; Díaz-Chico, Juan C.; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro. 2012. "The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 7: 758-778.



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