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Special Issue "Hormone Therapy"

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A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. John Eden

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, The University of New South Wiles, Sydney, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: menopause after breast cancer; polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); osteoporosis; biofilms; hormone replacement therapy as well as herbal medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Some years ago HT was being touted as a treatment for most if not all menopausal women to treat symptoms such as hot flushes as well as a preventive agent for heart disease and osteoporosis. However, since the first publication of the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in July 2002, HT usage has declined substantially. Much of the female population is now fearful that HT usage may increase their risk of breast cancer. Around a quarter of women will have severe menopausal symptoms as they pass through the menopause transition and some will have symptoms for the rest of their lives. How safe is HRT? How should we manage women who have severe menopausal flushing for years? Which is the best method for managing genitourinary symptoms? These are some of the questions being addressed this this issue.

Dr. John Eden
Guest Edtor

Keywords

  • oestrogen
  • estrogen
  • progesterone
  • progestin
  • hormone therapy
  • hormone replacement therapy
  • menopause
  • flushes
  • flashes
  • women's health initiative
  • nurse's health study
  • million women
  • studytestosterone (replacement)
  • androgen (replacement)
  • steroids

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Norethindrone Acetate in the Medical Management of Adenomyosis
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(10), 1120-1127; doi:10.3390/ph5101120
Received: 8 July 2012 / Revised: 4 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of norethindrone acetate (NA) in the management of adenomyosis was evaluated with a retrospective chart review of 28 premenopausal women between 27–49 years of age presenting with moderate to severe pelvic pain and bleeding. Bleeding and dysmenorrhea scores were analyzed using
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The role of norethindrone acetate (NA) in the management of adenomyosis was evaluated with a retrospective chart review of 28 premenopausal women between 27–49 years of age presenting with moderate to severe pelvic pain and bleeding. Bleeding and dysmenorrhea scores were analyzed using paired T-tests. There was significant improvement of both dysmenorrhea and bleeding after treatment. Age showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea or bleeding. Low dose NA could be considered an effective, well-tolerated and inexpensive medical alternative to surgery for treating symptomatic adenomyosis. Large multicentric studies may help validate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Tissue Selective Estrogen Complex: A Promising New Menopausal Therapy
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(9), 899-924; doi:10.3390/ph5090899
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 18 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Menopause is associated with health concerns including vasomotor symptoms, vulvar/vaginal atrophy (VVA), and osteoporosis. Estrogen therapy or combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) are primary treatment options for menopausal symptom relief and osteoporosis prevention. Because EPT has been associated with some safety/tolerability concerns relating to
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Menopause is associated with health concerns including vasomotor symptoms, vulvar/vaginal atrophy (VVA), and osteoporosis. Estrogen therapy or combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) are primary treatment options for menopausal symptom relief and osteoporosis prevention. Because EPT has been associated with some safety/tolerability concerns relating to undesirable effects of estrogen and progestin, alternative options are needed. The tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a novel class of agents pairing a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with 1 or more estrogens. The TSEC combines the established efficacy of estrogens on menopausal symptoms and bone with the protective effects of a SERM on the reproductive tract. The pairing of bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE) has been evaluated in a series of phase 3 clinical trials. BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg and BZA 20 mg/CE 0.625 mg have shown efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flushes, relieving VVA symptoms, and maintaining bone mass while protecting the endometrium and breast. These BZA/CE doses have been associated with a favorable safety/tolerability profile, with higher rates of cumulative amenorrhea and lower incidences of breast pain than those reported for EPT. Thus, BZA/CE may be a promising alternative to conventional EPT for treating non-hysterectomized, postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapy)
Open AccessReview The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(7), 758-778; doi:10.3390/ph5070758
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 19 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis,
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GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis, protection from drug-induced toxicity and fertility. In addition, estrogens can modulate GH actions in liver by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and, peripherally, by modulating GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway. Therefore, the interactions of estrogens with GH actions in liver are biologically and clinically relevant because disruption of GH signaling may cause alterations of its endocrine, metabolic, and gender differentiated functions and it could be linked to dramatic impact in liver physiology during development as well as in adulthood. Finally, the interplay of estrogens with GH is relevant because physiological roles these hormones have in human, and the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. This review highlights the importance of these hormones in liver physiology as well as how estrogens modulate GH actions in liver which will help to improve the clinical use of these hormones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapy)
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Open AccessReview Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(5), 726-740; doi:10.3390/ph4050726
Received: 12 April 2011 / Revised: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 16 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and
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Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapy)

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