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Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria
Department of Biosciences, Biochemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6A, 20520 Turku, Finland
Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 15 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
Abstract: Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.
Keywords: cholera toxin; probiotic bacteria; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium
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Heikkilä, J.E.; Nybom, S.M.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Meriluoto, J.A.O. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 665-673.
Heikkilä JE, Nybom SMK, Salminen SJ, Meriluoto JAO. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(6):665-673.
Heikkilä, Jari E.; Nybom, Sonja M. K.; Salminen, Seppo J.; Meriluoto, Jussi A. O. 2012. "Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 6: 665-673.