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Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(6), 665-673; doi:10.3390/ph5060665

Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

1,* , 1, 2 and 1
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 15 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics)
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Abstract: Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.
Keywords: cholera toxin; probiotic bacteria; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium cholera toxin; probiotic bacteria; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Heikkilä, J.E.; Nybom, S.M.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Meriluoto, J.A.O. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 665-673.

AMA Style

Heikkilä JE, Nybom SMK, Salminen SJ, Meriluoto JAO. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(6):665-673.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heikkilä, Jari E.; Nybom, Sonja M. K.; Salminen, Seppo J.; Meriluoto, Jussi A. O. 2012. "Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 6: 665-673.

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