Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Preventive and Occupational Medicine Unit, Respiratory Pathophysiology Laboratory, University Hospital San Martino, Largo R. Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genoa, Italy
Respiratory Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV - 16132 Genoa, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2010; in revised form: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Abstract: Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised.
Keywords: β2-adrenoceptors; G-protein-coupled receptor signaling;airway smooth muscle; bronchodilation; desensitization; safety issues
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Barisione, G.; Baroffio, M.; Crimi, E.; Brusasco, V. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1016-1044.
Barisione G, Baroffio M, Crimi E, Brusasco V. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(4):1016-1044.
Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito. 2010. "Beta-Adrenergic Agonists." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 4: 1016-1044.