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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(2), 323-344; doi:10.3390/ph3020323

Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Australia
Amarillo Biosciences, Inc., 4134 Business Park Drive, Amarillo, TX 79110, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 20 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferons)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [337 KB, uploaded 28 January 2010]


The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNa therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.
Keywords: interferon; oromucosal delivery; influenza; treatment; viral diseases interferon; oromucosal delivery; influenza; treatment; viral diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beilharz, M.W.; Cummins, M.J.; Bennett, A.L.; Cummins, J.M. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 323-344.

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