Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Dabigatran and Rivaroxaban on Markers of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Activation
Next Article in Special Issue
Parallel Evolution of Host-Attachment Proteins in Phage PP01 Populations Adapting to Escherichia coli O157:H7
Previous Article in Journal
Old Drugs as New Treatments for Neurodegenerative Diseases
Previous Article in Special Issue
Enhancing Whole Phage Therapy and Their Derived Antimicrobial Enzymes through Complex Formulation
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11020045

Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, T12 P928 Cork, Ireland
2
Laboratory of Gene Technology, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Max Rubner-Institut, 24103 Kiel, Germany
4
Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, Hasselt University, 3590 Hasselt, Belgium
5
APC Microbiome Institute, University College, T12 YT20 Cork, Ireland
This paper is dedicated to the memory of Alan Lucid who passed away on 31 August 2017 during the preparation of the manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Therapy and Phage-Mediated Biological Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [19514 KB, uploaded 15 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Pectobacterium atrosepticum is an economically important phytopathogen that is responsible for potato blackleg and soft rot, and for which current control strategies are limited. In this study, stem samples of potato crops exhibiting blackleg were taken from three farms in Co. Cork, Ireland, and they were found to be infected with P. atrosepticum. Three closely related bacteriophages (phages) that are specific to this phytopathogen were isolated and characterized, namely vB_PatP_CB1, vB_PatP_CB3, and vB_PatP_CB4 (abbreviated as CB1, CB3, and CB4). Both CB1 and CB3 were determined to infect 12 strains and CB4 10 strains of the 19 strains of P. atrosepticum tested. Morphology, latent periods, burst sizes, and their stability at various temperatures and pHs were also examined. Genome sequencing of the three phages revealed that they shared a minimum nucleotide identity of 93% with each other. Their genomes exhibited an Enquartavirinae genome organization, possessing several conserved proteins that were associated with phages of this group, like the type species Escherichia virus N4. Tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) allowed for the identification of ten structural proteins that form the virion of CB1, six that are conserved in phage N4. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the phages suppress soft rot formation upon co-inoculation with P. atrosepticum on whole tubers. The results of this study indicate that CB1 related phages could be good candidates for phage-based control. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage isolation; phage characterization; Pectobacterium; blackleg; soft rot; phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria; plant disease biocontrol; phage therapy; N4-like phage phage isolation; phage characterization; Pectobacterium; blackleg; soft rot; phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria; plant disease biocontrol; phage therapy; N4-like phage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Buttimer, C.; Hendrix, H.; Lucid, A.; Neve, H.; Noben, J.-P.; Franz, C.; O’Mahony, J.; Lavigne, R.; Coffey, A. Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top