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Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11020033

Phytochemical Study of the Ecuadorian Species Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling and High Antifungal Activity of Carnosol against Pyricularia oryzae

1
Departamento de Química y Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), Calle M. Champagnat s/n, 1101608 Loja, Ecuador
2
Dipartimento di Scienza della Terra e dell’Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via S. Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via T. Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract

The plant Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling (family Lamiaceae) is endemic to Ecuador. In the present study, we report some major non-volatile secondary metabolites from the leaves and the chemistry of the essential oil distilled from the flowers. The main identified compounds were carnosol, viridiflorol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, chrysothol, and 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy flavone. Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction and NMR and MS techniques. The essential oil showed a chemical composition similar to that distilled from the leaves, but with some qualitative and quantitative differences regarding several minor compounds. The main constituents (>4%) were: δ-3-carene (24.23%), eudesm-7(11)-en-4-ol (13.02%), thujopsan-2-α-ol (11.90%), β-pinene (7.96%), valerianol (5.19%), and co-eluting limonene and β-phellandrene (4.47%). The volatile fraction was also submitted to enantioselective analysis on a β-cyclodextrin column, obtaining the separation and identification of the enantiomers for α-thujene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, limonene and β-phellandrene. Furthermore, the anti-fungal activity of non-volatile secondary metabolites was tested in vitro, with carnosol resulting in being very active against the “blast disease” caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lepechinia mutica; Lamiaceae; carnosol; secondary metabolites; essential oil; Ecuador; Pyricularia oryzae Lepechinia mutica; Lamiaceae; carnosol; secondary metabolites; essential oil; Ecuador; Pyricularia oryzae
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Ramírez, J.; Gilardoni, G.; Ramón, E.; Tosi, S.; Picco, A.M.; Bicchi, C.; Vidari, G. Phytochemical Study of the Ecuadorian Species Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling and High Antifungal Activity of Carnosol against Pyricularia oryzae. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 33.

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