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Pharmaceuticals 2017, 10(4), 78; doi:10.3390/ph10040078

Heparin Mimetics: Their Therapeutic Potential

1
School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Western Australia, Australia
2
School of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Western Australia, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans)
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Abstract

Heparin mimetics are synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds that are highly sulfated, structurally distinct analogues of glycosaminoglycans. These mimetics are often rationally designed to increase potency and binding selectivity towards specific proteins involved in disease manifestations. Some of the major therapeutic arenas towards which heparin mimetics are targeted include: coagulation and thrombosis, cancers, and inflammatory diseases. Although Fondaparinux, a rationally designed heparin mimetic, is now approved for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism, the search for novel anticoagulant heparin mimetics with increased affinity and fewer side effects remains a subject of research. However, increasingly, research is focusing on the non-anticoagulant activities of these molecules. Heparin mimetics have potential as anti-cancer agents due to their ability to: (1) inhibit heparanase, an endoglycosidase which facilitates the spread of tumor cells; and (2) inhibit angiogenesis by binding to growth factors. The heparin mimetic, PI-88 is in clinical trials for post-surgical hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced melanoma. The anti-inflammatory properties of heparin mimetics have primarily been attributed to their ability to interact with: complement system proteins, selectins and chemokines; each of which function differently to facilitate inflammation. The efficacy of low/non-anticoagulant heparin mimetics in animal models of different inflammatory diseases has been demonstrated. These findings, plus clinical data that indicates heparin has anti-inflammatory activity, will raise the momentum for developing heparin mimetics as a new class of therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparin mimetics; heparin; heparan sulfate; glycosaminoglycan; anticoagulant; cancer; anti-inflammatory heparin mimetics; heparin; heparan sulfate; glycosaminoglycan; anticoagulant; cancer; anti-inflammatory
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mohamed, S.; Coombe, D.R. Heparin Mimetics: Their Therapeutic Potential. Pharmaceuticals 2017, 10, 78.

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