Next Article in Journal
Folate Receptor-Positive Gynecological Cancer Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization
Previous Article in Journal
Complexes of Oligoribonucleotides with D-Mannitol Inhibit Hemagglutinin–Glycan Interaction and Suppress Influenza A Virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) Infectivity In Vitro
Previous Article in Special Issue
Modernization of Enoxaparin Molecular Weight Determination Using Homogeneous Standards
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Pharmaceuticals 2017, 10(3), 70; doi:10.3390/ph10030070

Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Chemokines Add Complexity to a Complex System

1
Novimmune SA, 1228 Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland
2
Novartis Pharma Schweiz A.G., Suurstoffi 14, 6343 Rotkreuz, Switzerland
3
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2997 KB, uploaded 9 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Chemokines have two types of interactions that function cooperatively to control cell migration. Chemokine receptors on migrating cells integrate signals initiated upon chemokine binding to promote cell movement. Interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) localize chemokines on and near cell surfaces and the extracellular matrix to provide direction to the cell movement. The matrix of interacting chemokine–receptor partners has been known for some time, precise signaling and trafficking properties of many chemokine–receptor pairs have been characterized, and recent structural information has revealed atomic level detail on chemokine–receptor recognition and activation. However, precise knowledge of the interactions of chemokines with GAGs has lagged far behind such that a single paradigm of GAG presentation on surfaces is generally applied to all chemokines. This review summarizes accumulating evidence which suggests that there is a great deal of diversity and specificity in these interactions, that GAG interactions help fine-tune the function of chemokines, and that GAGs have other roles in chemokine biology beyond localization and surface presentation. This suggests that chemokine–GAG interactions add complexity to the already complex functions of the receptors and ligands. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemokines; glycosaminoglycans/GAGs; heparan sulfate; chemokine therapeutics; chemokine structure; chemokine oligomerization chemokines; glycosaminoglycans/GAGs; heparan sulfate; chemokine therapeutics; chemokine structure; chemokine oligomerization
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Proudfoot, A.E.I.; Johnson, Z.; Bonvin, P.; Handel, T.M. Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Chemokines Add Complexity to a Complex System. Pharmaceuticals 2017, 10, 70.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top