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The pH Response and Sensing Mechanism of n-Type ZnO/Electrolyte Interfaces
Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-60174 Norrköping, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2009; Accepted: 9 September 2009 / Published: 16 September 2009
Abstract: Ever since the discovery of the pH-sensing properties of ZnO crystals, researchers have been exploring their potential in electrochemical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification methods has made it possible to generate a new class of electrochemically active ZnO nanorods. This reduction in size of ZnO (to a nanocrystalline form) using new growth techniques is essentially an example of the nanotechnology fabrication principle. The availability of these ZnO nanorods opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of electrochemical sensing. This review covers the latest advances and mechanism of pH-sensing using ZnO nanorods, with an emphasis on the nano-interface mechanism. We discuss methods for calculating the effect of surface states on pH-sensing at a ZnO/electrolyte interface. All of these current research topics aim to explain the mechanism of pH-sensing using a ZnO bulk- or nano-scale single crystal. An important goal of these investigations is the translation of these nanotechnology-modified nanorods into potential novel applications.
Keywords: ZnO nanorods; pH sensor; electrolyte double layer; n-type ZnO-electrolyte interface; fermi level pinning; potentiometric measurements
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MDPI and ACS Style
Al-Hilli, S.; Willander, M. The pH Response and Sensing Mechanism of n-Type ZnO/Electrolyte Interfaces. Sensors 2009, 9, 7445-7480.
Al-Hilli S, Willander M. The pH Response and Sensing Mechanism of n-Type ZnO/Electrolyte Interfaces. Sensors. 2009; 9(9):7445-7480.
Al-Hilli, Safaa; Willander, Magnus. 2009. "The pH Response and Sensing Mechanism of n-Type ZnO/Electrolyte Interfaces." Sensors 9, no. 9: 7445-7480.