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Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors
School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266101, China
Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2009; in revised form: 6 July 2009 / Accepted: 8 July 2009 / Published: 14 July 2009
Abstract: As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.
Keywords: nano-material; DNA biosensor; substrates; signal amplification
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MDPI and ACS Style
Xu, K.; Huang, J.; Ye, Z.; Ying, Y.; Li, Y. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors. Sensors 2009, 9, 5534-5557.
Xu K, Huang J, Ye Z, Ying Y, Li Y. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors. Sensors. 2009; 9(7):5534-5557.
Xu, Kai; Huang, Junran; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin. 2009. "Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors." Sensors 9, no. 7: 5534-5557.