Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5224-5240; doi:10.3390/s90705224
Article

Sampling and Kriging Spatial Means: Efficiency and Conditions

1,* email, 1email and 2email
Received: 11 May 2009; in revised form: 16 June 2009 / Accepted: 29 June 2009 / Published: 2 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Sampling and estimation of geographical attributes that vary across space (e.g., area temperature, urban pollution level, provincial cultivated land, regional population mortality and state agricultural production) are common yet important constituents of many real-world applications. Spatial attribute estimation and the associated accuracy depend on the available sampling design and statistical inference modelling. In the present work, our concern is areal attribute estimation, in which the spatial sampling and Kriging means are compared in terms of mean values, variances of mean values, comparative efficiencies and underlying conditions. Both the theoretical analysis and the empirical study show that the mean Kriging technique outperforms other commonly-used techniques. Estimation techniques that account for spatial correlation (dependence) are more efficient than those that do not, whereas the comparative efficiencies of the various methods change with surface features. The mean Kriging technique can be applied to other spatially distributed attributes, as well.
Keywords: random field; mean Kriging; spatial dependence; GIS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.-F.; Li, L.-F.; Christakos, G. Sampling and Kriging Spatial Means: Efficiency and Conditions. Sensors 2009, 9, 5224-5240.

AMA Style

Wang J-F, Li L-F, Christakos G. Sampling and Kriging Spatial Means: Efficiency and Conditions. Sensors. 2009; 9(7):5224-5240.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Lian-Fa; Christakos, George. 2009. "Sampling and Kriging Spatial Means: Efficiency and Conditions." Sensors 9, no. 7: 5224-5240.

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