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Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4083-4103; doi:10.3390/s90604083

A Distributed Geo-Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsang buk-do 712-749, Korea
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Received: 24 April 2009 / Revised: 21 May 2009 / Accepted: 25 May 2009 / Published: 27 May 2009

Abstract

Geographic wireless sensor networks use position information for greedy routing. Greedy routing works well in dense networks, whereas in sparse networks it may fail and require a recovery algorithm. Recovery algorithms help the packet to get out of the communication void. However, these algorithms are generally costly for resource constrained position-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose a void avoidance algorithm (VAA), a novel idea based on upgrading virtual distance. VAA allows wireless sensor nodes to remove all stuck nodes by transforming the routing graph and forwarding packets using only greedy routing. In VAA, the stuck node upgrades distance unless it finds a next hop node that is closer to the destination than it is. VAA guarantees packet delivery if there is a topologically valid path. Further, it is completely distributed, immediately responds to node failure or topology changes and does not require planarization of the network. NS-2 is used to evaluate the performance and correctness of VAA and we compare its performance to other protocols. Simulations show our proposed algorithm consumes less energy, has an efficient path and substantially less control overheads. View Full-Text
Keywords: geo-routing; communication void; greedy routing; wireless sensor networks geo-routing; communication void; greedy routing; wireless sensor networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Joshi, G.P.; Kim, S.W. A Distributed Geo-Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2009, 9, 4083-4103.

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