Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera
DINSE, Politecnico di Torino, Viale Mattioli, 39, 10125, Torino, Italy
DEIAFA, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via L. da Vinci, 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
DITAG, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129, Torino, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2009; in revised form: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
Abstract: 3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the acquired data. In order to evaluate these errors, some experimental tests on a CCD/CMOS ToF camera sensor, the SwissRanger (SR)-4000 camera, were performed and reported in this paper. In particular, two main aspects are treated: the calibration of the distance measurements of the SR-4000 camera, which deals with evaluation of the camera warm up time period, the distance measurement error evaluation and a study of the influence on distance measurements of the camera orientation with respect to the observed object; the second aspect concerns the photogrammetric calibration of the amplitude images delivered by the camera using a purpose-built multi-resolution field made of high contrast targets.
Keywords: Time-of-Flight camera; range imaging; calibration; systematic errors; CCD/CMOS sensor
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chiabrando, F.; Chiabrando, R.; Piatti, D.; Rinaudo, F. Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera. Sensors 2009, 9, 10080-10096.
Chiabrando F, Chiabrando R, Piatti D, Rinaudo F. Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera. Sensors. 2009; 9(12):10080-10096.
Chiabrando, Filiberto; Chiabrando, Roberto; Piatti, Dario; Rinaudo, Fulvio. 2009. "Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera." Sensors 9, no. 12: 10080-10096.