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Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10080-10096; doi:10.3390/s91210080
Article

Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera

1
, 2
, 3,*  and 3
Received: 3 November 2009; in revised form: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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Abstract: 3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the acquired data. In order to evaluate these errors, some experimental tests on a CCD/CMOS ToF camera sensor, the SwissRanger (SR)-4000 camera, were performed and reported in this paper. In particular, two main aspects are treated: the calibration of the distance measurements of the SR-4000 camera, which deals with evaluation of the camera warm up time period, the distance measurement error evaluation and a study of the influence on distance measurements of the camera orientation with respect to the observed object; the second aspect concerns the photogrammetric calibration of the amplitude images delivered by the camera using a purpose-built multi-resolution field made of high contrast targets.
Keywords: Time-of-Flight camera; range imaging; calibration; systematic errors; CCD/CMOS sensor Time-of-Flight camera; range imaging; calibration; systematic errors; CCD/CMOS sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiabrando, F.; Chiabrando, R.; Piatti, D.; Rinaudo, F. Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera. Sensors 2009, 9, 10080-10096.

AMA Style

Chiabrando F, Chiabrando R, Piatti D, Rinaudo F. Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera. Sensors. 2009; 9(12):10080-10096.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiabrando, Filiberto; Chiabrando, Roberto; Piatti, Dario; Rinaudo, Fulvio. 2009. "Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera." Sensors 9, no. 12: 10080-10096.


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