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CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2008; in revised form: 4 January 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2009 / Published: 13 January 2009
Abstract: Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).
Keywords: Active-pixel-sensor; biomedical imaging; CCD; CMOS; high-speed; image-sensor; photodetectors; smart-pixel
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MDPI and ACS Style
El-Desouki, M.; Jamal Deen, M.; Fang, Q.; Liu, L.; Tse, F.; Armstrong, D. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications. Sensors 2009, 9, 430-444.
El-Desouki M, Jamal Deen M, Fang Q, Liu L, Tse F, Armstrong D. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications. Sensors. 2009; 9(1):430-444.
El-Desouki, Munir; Jamal Deen, M.; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David. 2009. "CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications." Sensors 9, no. 1: 430-444.