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Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5775-5791; doi:10.3390/s8095775
Article

Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

1
,
1,* , 1
,
2
 and
2
1 School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43000, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agriculture Research & Development Institute (MARDI), P.O. BOX 12301, GPO Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2008 / Revised: 30 August 2008 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 18 September 2008
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Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.
Keywords: Screen-printer biosensor; alkaline phosphatase; Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2; 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Screen-printer biosensor; alkaline phosphatase; Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2; 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Loh, K.-S.; Lee, Y.H.; Musa, A.; Salmah, A.A.; Zamri, I. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. Sensors 2008, 8, 5775-5791.

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