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Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5775-5791; doi:10.3390/s8095775
Article

Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

1
, 1,* , 1
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 and 2
Received: 29 July 2008; in revised form: 30 August 2008 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 18 September 2008
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Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.
Keywords: Screen-printer biosensor; alkaline phosphatase; Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2; 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Screen-printer biosensor; alkaline phosphatase; Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2; 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Loh, K.-S.; Lee, Y.H.; Musa, A.; Salmah, A.A.; Zamri, I. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. Sensors 2008, 8, 5775-5791.

AMA Style

Loh K-S, Lee YH, Musa A, Salmah AA, Zamri I. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. Sensors. 2008; 8(9):5775-5791.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook H.; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul A.; Zamri, Ishak. 2008. "Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid." Sensors 8, no. 9: 5775-5791.


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