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Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo
Dept. Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
These individuals are co-first authors.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2008; in revised form: 22 August 2008 / Accepted: 22 August 2008 / Published: 27 August 2008
Abstract: Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, we have developed silicon wafer-based platinum microelectrode arrays (MEAs) modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) for electroenzymatic detection of glutamate in vivo. These MEAs were designed to have optimal spatial resolution for in vivo recordings. Selective detection of glutamate in the presence of the electroactive interferents, dopamine and ascorbic acid, was attained by deposition of polypyrrole and Nafion. The sensors responded to glutamate with a limit of detection under 1μM and a sub-1-second response time in solution. In addition to extensive in vitro characterization, the utility of these MEA glutamate biosensors was also established in vivo. In the anesthetized rat, these MEA glutamate biosensors were used for detection of cortically-evoked glutamate release in the ventral striatum. The MEA biosensors also were applied to the detection of stress-induced glutamate release in the dorsal striatum of the freely-moving rat.
Keywords: Glutamate Biosensor; Constant Potential Amperometry; Nafion; Polypyrrole; Central Nervous System
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wassum, K.M.; Tolosa, V.M.; Wang, J.; Walker, E.; Monbouquette, H.G.; Maidment, N.T. Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo. Sensors 2008, 8, 5023-5036.
Wassum KM, Tolosa VM, Wang J, Walker E, Monbouquette HG, Maidment NT. Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo. Sensors. 2008; 8(8):5023-5036.
Wassum, Kate M.; Tolosa, Vanessa M.; Wang, Jianjun; Walker, Eric; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Maidment, Nigel T. 2008. "Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo." Sensors 8, no. 8: 5023-5036.