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Sensors 2008, 8(11), 6860-6884; doi:10.3390/s8116860

Microsensors for in vivo Measurement of Glutamate in Brain Tissue

Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Deusinglaan 1, 9713AV, Groningen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2008 / Revised: 24 October 2008 / Accepted: 3 November 2008 / Published: 4 November 2008
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Several immobilized enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for glutamate detection have been developed over the last decade. In this review, we compare first and second generation sensors. Structures, working mechanisms, interference prevention, in vitro detection characteristics and in vivo performance are summarized here for those sensors that have successfully detected brain glutamate in vivo. In brief, first generation sensors have a simpler structure and are faster in glutamate detection. They also show a better sensitivity to glutamate during calibration in vitro. For second generation sensors, besides their less precise detection, their fabrication is difficult to reproduce, even with a semi-automatic dip-coater. Both generations of sensors can detect glutamate levels in vivo, but the reported basal levels are different. In general, second generation sensors detect higher basal levels of glutamate compared with the results obtained from first generation sensors. However, whether the detected glutamate is indeed from synaptic sources is an issue that needs further attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: First generation biosensor; second generation biosensor; glutamate; in vivo detection First generation biosensor; second generation biosensor; glutamate; in vivo detection

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Qin, S.; Van der Zeyden, M.; Oldenziel, W.H.; Cremers, T.I.; Westerink, B.H. Microsensors for in vivo Measurement of Glutamate in Brain Tissue. Sensors 2008, 8, 6860-6884.

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