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Sensors 2007, 7(8), 1415-1426; doi:10.3390/s7081415
Article

Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor) based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection

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1 Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Jülich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Ginsterweg 1, 52428 Jülich, Germany 2 Research Centre Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), 52428 Jülich, Germany 3 Philipps-University Marburg, Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Marbacher Weg 6, 35037 Marburg, Germany 4 Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Jülich Campus, Ginsterweg 1, 52428 Jülich,Germany 5 ALA Analytical Laboratory GmbH, Charlottenstraße 14, 52070 Aachen, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2007 / Accepted: 3 August 2007 / Published: 3 August 2007
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Abstract

A cyanide biosensor based on a pH-sensitive p-doped electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure with an immobilised enzyme (cyanidase) is realised at thelaboratory scale. The immobilisation of the cyanidase is performed in two distinct steps:first, the covalent coupling of cyanidase to an N-hydroxysuccinimide- (NHS) activatedSepharoseTM gel and then, the physical entrapment of NHS-activated SepharoseTM with theimmobilised cyanidase in a dialysis membrane onto the EIS structure. The immobilisationof the cyanidase to the NHS-activated SepharoseTM is studied by means of gelelectrophoresis measurements and investigations using an ammonia- (NH3) selectiveelectrode. For the electrochemical characterisation of the cyanide biosensor,capacitance/voltage and constant capacitance measurements, respectively, have beencarried out. A differential measurement procedure is presented to evaluate the cyanideconcentration-dependent biosensor signals.
Keywords: cyanide biosensor; EIS structure; cyanidase; pH; differential measurement set- up. cyanide biosensor; EIS structure; cyanidase; pH; differential measurement set- up.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Turek, M.; Ketterer, L.; Claßen, M.; Berndt, H.K.; Elbers, G.; Krüger, P.; Keusgen, M.; Schöning, M.J. Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor) based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection. Sensors 2007, 7, 1415-1426.

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