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Sensors 2005, 5(4), 209-219; doi:10.3390/s5040209
Article

On Calibration of pH Meters

 and *
Received: 27 May 2004 / Accepted: 14 November 2004 / Published: 27 April 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers presented at I3S2004, Nanjing)
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Abstract

The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL) and triple layer (TL) will be discussed.
Keywords: electrochemistry; electrode; pH measurement electrochemistry; electrode; pH measurement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cheng, K.L.; Zhu, D.-M. On Calibration of pH Meters. Sensors 2005, 5, 209-219.

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