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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061932

Immuno Nanosensor for the Ultrasensitive Naked Eye Detection of Tuberculosis

1
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecule Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia
4
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia
5
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
6
Surfactant Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 May 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

In the present study, a beneficial approach for the ultrasensitive and affordable naked eye detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by utilizing plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) via antibody-antigen interaction was studied. Here, the biocatalytic cycle of the intracellular enzymes links to the formation and successive growth of the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for ultrasensitive detection. The formation of different colored solutions by the plasmonic nanoparticles in the presence of enzyme labels links directly to the existence or non-existence of the TB analytes in the sample solutions. For disease detection, the adapted protocol is based mainly on the conventional ELISA procedure that involves catalase-labeled antibodies, i.e., the enzymes consume hydrogen peroxide and further produce GNPs with the addition of gold (III) chloride. The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in the solution determines whether the GNPs solution is to be formed in the color blue or the color red, as it serves as a confirmation for the naked eye detection of TB analytes. However, the conventional ELISA method only shows tonal colors that need a high concentration of analyte to achieve high confidence levels for naked eye detection. Also, in this research, we proposed the incorporation of protein biomarker, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6-like protein esxB (CFP-10), as a means of TB detection using plasmonic ELISA. With the use of this technique, the CFP-10 detection limit can be lowered to 0.01 µg/mL by the naked eye. Further, our developed technique was successfully tested and confirmed with sputum samples from patients diagnosed with positive TB, thereby providing enough evidence for the utilization of our technique in the early diagnosis of TB disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; immune nanosensor; plasmonic ELISA; biosensors; naked eye detection tuberculosis; immune nanosensor; plasmonic ELISA; biosensors; naked eye detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mohd Bakhori, N.; Yusof, N.A.; Abdullah, J.; Wasoh, H.; Md Noor, S.S.; Ahmad Raston, N.H.; Mohammad, F. Immuno Nanosensor for the Ultrasensitive Naked Eye Detection of Tuberculosis. Sensors 2018, 18, 1932.

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